Research paper
 
CC-BY-NC 4.0
 
 

A geo-view into historical patterns of smoke-free policy coverage in the USA

Zaria Tatalovich 1  ,  
Yvonne Hunt 1,  
 
1
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States
2
Westat, Rockville, Maryland, United States
3
Information Management Services Inc, Calverton, Maryland, United States
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2017;3(December):134
Publish date: 2017-12-07
Submission date: 2017-05-03
Final revision date: 2017-11-09
Acceptance date: 2017-11-11
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
 
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Ample evidence shows that implementation of smoke-free policies can significantly reduce tobacco use. The indoor smoke-free policy coverage in the U.S. increased over the past 25 years. This study synthesized the available historical smoke-free policy data and achieved two complementary goals: 1) reconstructed historical patterns of indoor smoke-free policy coverage in the U.S., and 2) developed a web-based interactive tool for visualization and download of the U.S. historical smoke-free policy data for research.

Methods:
Historical information on local and regional smoke-free policy was downloaded from the American Nonsmokers Rights Foundation (ANRF). Subsequent methodological processes included: geo-referencing of smoke-free policy data, spatial-temporal data linkage, spatial pattern analysis, data visualization, and the development of an interactive tool.

Results:
The percentage of population covered by the smoke-free policies varies across the different geographic locations, scales, and over time. On average, the percentage of people covered by the smoke-free laws in the U.S. increased substantially in the recent decade. The Tobacco-Policy-Viewer reveals geographic patterns of increase in smoke-free policy adoption by cities, counties, and States over time.

Conclusions:
The utility of visualizing the historical patterns of smoke-free policy coverage in the U.S. is to understand where and for how long smoke-free policies were in place for indoor facilities and to inform planning for education and interventions in the areas of need. The benefit of data provided for download, via the Tobacco-Policy-Viewer, is to catalyze future research on the impacts of historical smoke-free policy coverage on reduction in secondhand-smoke exposures, tobacco use, and tobacco related diseases.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Zaria Tatalovich   
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 4E 446, 20850 Rockville, United States
 
REFERENCES (22):
1. Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozaffarian D, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med. 2009; 6(4). doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed1000058.
2. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/second-hand-smoke-fact-sheet (accessed December 2016).
3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General, Atlanta, GA: HHS, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/index.htm (accessed December 2016).
4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, Atlanta, GA: HHS, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2006/index.htm (accessed December 2016).
5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/index.htm (accessed December 2016).
6. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control, Vol. 13: Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free policies. 2009: Lyon, France. Available at: http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/prev/handbook13/handbook13.pdf (accessed May 2017).
7. Guide to Community Preventive Services. Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Smoke-Free Policies. 2012. Available at: https://www.thecommunityguide.org/findings/tobacco-use-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-incentives-and-competitions-increase-smoking-0 (accessed December 2016).
8. Siegel M, Albers AB, Cheng DM, Biener L, Rigotti NA. “Effect of local restaurant smoking regulations on progression to established smoking among youths,” Tob Control 2005;14: 300-306. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.012302.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco Control State Highlights, 2010. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/state_data/state_highlights/2010/pdfs/highlights2010.pdf (accessed December 2016).
10. Wintemberg J, McElroy JA , Bin Ge, Everett KD. Can Smoke-Free Policies Reduce Tobacco Use Disparities of Sexual and Gender Minorities in Missouri? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2017, 1308–1314. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx078.
11. Frazer K, Callinan JE, McHugh J, van Baarsel S, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005992. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005992.pub3.
12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Laws and Policies. Available at: http://betobaccofree.hhs.gov/laws/#regulation (accessed May 2017).
13. American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation (ANRF). Available at: http://www.no-smoke.org (accessed May 2017).
14. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. The Background of Smoking Bans. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence. 2010: Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
15. Hyland A, Barnoya J, Corral JE. Smoke-free air policies: past, present and future. Tob Control. 2012;21(2):154-61. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050389
16. Glantz, Stanton A., and Edith D. Balbach (2000). Tobacco War: Inside the California Battles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
17. McGuinness DL, Ding L, Lebo T, McCusker JP, Shaikh AR, Morgan GD, Willis G, Moser RP, Tatalovich Z, Hesse BV, Contractor N, Courtney P. Towards Semantically Enabled Next Generation Community Health Information Portals: The PopSciGrid Pilot. Proceedings of the 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Proceedings of the 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
18. American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation (ANRF). U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database©. Available at: http://no-smoke.org/document.php?id=313 (accessed December 2016).
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/statesystem/ (accessed December 2016).
20. Esri ArcGIS API for JavaScript.Available at: https://developers.arcgis.com/javascript/ (accessed May 2017).
21. Esri ArcGIS for Server. Available at: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgisserver (accessed May 2017).
22. Preventing Tobacco Addition Foundation. Tobacco 21 Initiative. Available at: http://tobacco21.org/ (accessed June 2016).
eISSN:2459-3087