Research paper
Cardiorespiratory response to exercise of nonsmokers occupationally exposed to second hand smoke (SHS)
 
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1
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Athens, Greece
2
George D. Behrakis RESEARCH LAB - Hellenic Cancer Society, Athens, Greece
3
Institute of Public Health - The American College of Greece, Athens, Greece
Publish date: 2017-01-13
Submission date: 2016-11-10
Acceptance date: 2016-11-21
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2017;3(January):1
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Occupational exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS) continues to be an issue, even in countries with strong tobacco control legislation. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of chronic occupational exposure to SHS on cardiorespiratory exercise response among healthy adult non-smokers.

Methods:
60 healthy non-smokers; 38 men, 22 women, aged 18-58 years with BMI<30 were separated into those exposed to occupational SHS (SHS, n=30) and those non-exposed (control, n=30) to occupational SHS in the hospitality sector. All individuals underwent baseline spirometry and ergospirometry testing. Non-smoking status was confirmed with exhaled CO, SHS exposure with urine cotinine measurement and indoor environmental pollution with PM2.5 concentration. For statistical analysis, a normality of distribution was determined using Shapiro-Wilks test and Equality of Variances with Levene's test. Spearman’s RHO was used for correlation analysis. Statistical differences were determined with an independent t-test and p-value was set to < 0.05.

Results:
The exposed to SHS group had lower performance rates than the controls. Exposed individuals exhibited larger percentage differences against their (%) predicted values ranging from 6.9% to 14% lower than the control group for V̇O2, V̇CO2, METS and V̇O2/HR parameters at points of anaerobic threshold (AT), V̇O2max and recovery (RC).

Conclusions:
Chronic occupational SHS exposure among non-smokers deteriorates CR exercise performance increasing risk of developing SHS associated diseases. Smoking ban legislation should be enforced but also inclusive of all workplaces eliminating the existing violation of labor and human rights.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Stephanie I. Teloniatis   
George D. Behrakis RESEARCH LAB -Hellenic Cancer Society, Dorileou 8, 11521 Athens, Greece
 
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