RESEARCH PAPER
Characteristics of Chinese smokers with psychotic disorders and their predictors on smoking cessation in Hong Kong
 
More details
Hide details
1
Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Integrated Centre on Smoking Cessation, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Raymond K. S. Ho   

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Integrated Centre on Smoking Cessation, 68 Chung On St, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong
Publication date: 2020-01-29
Submission date: 2019-09-23
Final revision date: 2019-11-16
Acceptance date: 2019-12-03
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2020;6(January):7
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
People with psychotic disorders are associated with high prevalence of cigarette smoking and prevalence rates. Studies show that many smokers with psychotic disorders would like to stop smoking, yet the abstinence rate among them is low. Despite this significant public health problem, few studies have examined the characteristics of this group of smokers and the predictors of smoking cessation.

Methods:
This is a retrospective chart review study. Case records of smokers who attended our smoking cessation clinic with and without psychotic disorders were reviewed. The outcome measure was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate at week 26. The basic demographic and biosocial characteristics of these smokers were analyzed.

Results:
A total of 3671 case records were reviewed and 155 smokers with psychosis were identified. The independent predictors of smoking abstinence at week 26 were to improve performance in exercise and sports, greater confidence of quitting, and greater number of counselling sessions. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate was 22.6% at 26 weeks.

Conclusions:
This study has demonstrated that many smokers with psychosis are able to quit smoking even with NRT and counselling and without use of oral medications. Health professionals need to pay greater attention to tobacco use by individuals with mental disorders. Every effort should be given to enhance their motivation, build up their confidence and to provide adequate counselling sessions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are indebted to Bandai WC Choi for his statistical input.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
REFERENCES (32)
1.
Brown S, Kim M, Mitchell C, Inskip H. Twenty five year mortality of a community cohort with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;196(2):116-121. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.067512
 
2.
Chapman S, Ragg M, Mc Geechan K. Citation bias in reported smoking prevalence in people with schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2009;43(3):277-282. doi:10.1080/00048670802653372
 
3.
de Leon J, Diaz FJ. A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviours. Schizophr Res. 2005;76(2-3):135-157. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.010
 
4.
Kumari V, Postma P. Nicotine use in schizophrenia: the self medication hypotheses. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(6):1021-1034. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.02.006
 
5.
Wing VC, Wass CE, Soh DW, George TP. A review of neurobiological vulnerability factors and treatment implications for comorbid tobacco dependence in schizophrenia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1248(1):89-106. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06261.x
 
6.
Ziedonis DM, Williams JM. Addressing tobacco use in mental health and addiction settings. Psychiatr Ann. 2003;33(7):425-426. doi:10.3928/0048-5713-20030701-04
 
7.
Ziedonis D, Hitsman B, Beckham JC, et al. Tobacco use and cessation in psychiatric disorders: National Institute of Mental Health report. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(12):1691-1715. doi:10.1080/14622200802443569
 
8.
Baker A, Richmond R, Haile M, et al. Characteristics of smokers with a psychotic disorder and implications for smoking interventions. Psychiatry Res. 2007;150(2):141-152. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.05.021
 
9.
Wehring HJ, Liu F, McMahon RP, Mackowick KM, Love CR, Dixon L. Clinical Characteristics of Heavy and Non-Heavy Smokers with Schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2010;138;(2-3):285-289. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2012.03.024
 
10.
Herrán A, de Santiago A, Sandoya M, Fernández MJ, Diez-Manrique JF, Vázquez-Barquero JL. Determinants of smoking behaviour in outpatients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2000;41(2):373-381. doi:10.1016/s0920-9964(99)00082-1
 
11.
Filia SL, Baker AL, Gurvich CT, Richmond R, Lewin TJ, Kulkarni J. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Psychiatry Res. 2014;215(3):586-593. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.01.002
 
12.
Culhane MA, Schoenfeld DA, Barr RS, et al. Predictors of Early Abstinence in Smokers with Schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(11):1743-1750. doi:10.4088/jcp.v69n1109
 
13.
Fiore MC, Jaén CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2008.
 
14.
Chan SSC, Lam TH. An evaluative study of the integrated smoking cessation services of Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. Hong Kong, China: Tung Wah Group of Hospitals; 2011.
 
15.
Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change. 2nd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2002.
 
16.
Cooper J, Mancuso SG, Borland R, Slade T, Galletly C, Castle D. Tobacco smoking among people living with a psychotic illness: The second Australian survey of psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012;46(9):851-863. doi:10.1177/0004867412449876
 
17.
Tang YL, George TP, Mao PX, Cai ZJ, Chen Q. Cigarette smoking in Chinese male inpatients with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(1-2):43-48. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2005.10.009
 
18.
Margolese HC, Malchy L, Negrete JC, Tempier R, Gill K. drug and alcohol use among patients with schizophrenia and related psychosis: levels and consequences. Schizophr Res. 2004;67(2-3):157-166. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00523-6
 
19.
Vanable PA, Carey MP, Carey KB, Maisto SA. Smoking Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Relationship to Substance Use, Diagnosis, and Illness Severity. Psychol Addict Behav. 2003;17(4):259-265. doi:10.1037/0893-164x.17.4.259
 
20.
de Leon J, Rendon DM, Baca-Garcia E, Aizpuru F, Gonzalez-Pinto A, Anitua C, Díaz FJ. Association between smoking and alcohol use in the general population: Stable and unstable odds ratios across two years in two different countries. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42(3):252-257. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm029
 
21.
Etter JF, Prokhorov AV, Perneger TV. Gender differences in the psychological determinants of cigarette smoking population. Addiction. 2002;97(6):733-743. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00135.x
 
22.
Chandola T, Head J, Bartley M. Socio-demographic predictors of quitting smoking: how important are household factors? Addiction. 2004;99(6):770-777. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00756.x
 
23.
Ferguson JA, Patten CA, Schroeder DR, Offord KP, Eberman KM, Hurt RD. Predictors of 6-month tobacco abstinence among 1224 cigarette smokers treated for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2003;28(7):1203-1218. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(02)00260-5
 
24.
Bader P, Boisclair D, Ferrence R. Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8(11):4118-4139. doi:10.3390/ijerph8114118
 
25.
Addington J, Nady el-Guebaly, Campbell W, Hodgins DC, Addington D. Smoking cessation treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(7):974-976. doi:10.1176/ajp.155.7.974
 
26.
de Leon J, Diaz FJ, Rogers T, Browne D, Dinsmore L. Initiation of daily smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Schizophr Res. 2002;56(1-2):47-54. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00217-1
 
27.
Tsoi DT, Porwal M, Webster AC. Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD007253. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007253.pub3
 
28.
George TP, Ziedonis DM, Feingold A, et al. Nicotine transdermal patch and atypical antipsychotic medications for smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(11):1835-1842. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.11.1835
 
29.
Himelhoch S, Daumit G. To whom do psychiatrist offer smoking cessation counselling? Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(12):2228-2230. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2228
 
30.
Patrick DL, Cheadle A, Thompson DC, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kinne S. The validity of self-reported smoking, a review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(7):1086-1093. doi:10.2105/ajph.84.7.1086
 
31.
Siru R, Hulse GK, Tait RJ. Assessing motivation to quit smoking in people with mental illness: a review. Addiction. 2009;104(5):719-733. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02545.x
 
32.
World Health Organization. The World health report : 2001 : Mental health : new understanding, new hope. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2001. https://apps.who.int/iris/hand.... Accessed September 23, 2019.
 
eISSN:2459-3087