STUDY PROTOCOLS
Development of an Evidence and Gap Map (EGM) of interventions to increase smoking cessation: A study protocol
Arifuzzaman Khan 1, 2  
,  
KM Saif-Ur-Rahman 4, 5
,  
Gulam Khandaker 1, 2
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
2
Central Queensland Public Health Unit, Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Rockhampton, Australia
3
Faculty of Medicine and Health, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
4
Department of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, Japan
5
Health Systems and Population Studies Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Arifuzzaman Khan   

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston QLD 4006, Brisbane, Australia
Publication date: 2020-07-22
Submission date: 2020-03-18
Final revision date: 2020-06-16
Acceptance date: 2020-06-17
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2020;6(July):44
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Smoking remains one of the leading risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. Sub-optimal implementation of evidence-based tobacco control and smoking cessation practice is a major challenge despite a substantial evidence base for interventions to increase smoking cessation globally. We aim to develop an Evidence and Gap Map (EGM) to collate the existing evidence and identify the gap in research on interventions to increase smoking cessation worldwide. A conceptual framework was developed followed by the formulation of a search strategy with key search terms and search period (1970 – date of search). The search will be conducted in relevant bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS), systematic reviews databases (e.g. Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs systematic reviews, EPPI-Reviewer) and impact evaluation databases (e.g. 3ie Impact Evaluation repository and Cochrane tobacco addiction group specialized register) with support from a research librarian. Subsequently, two coders will screen and retrieve systematic reviews and individual impact evaluation studies. The adapted SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) checklist will be used to evaluate the quality of the included systematic reviews. A narrative synthesis from the systematic review findings and line listing of the impact evaluations will form the basis of this EGM. The EGM report will be presented in an interactive visual format. The proposed EGM will organise the pieces of evidence generated in systematic reviews and impact evaluations on smoking cessation interventions and identify the current research gaps, if any. The findings will inform evidence-based practice and future research.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
PROTOCOL REGISTRATION
The protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020135667). Also, it was pre-registered in Open Science Framework registry (https://osf.io/registries).
 
REFERENCES (30)
1.
GBD Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392(10159):1923-1994. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.751
 
2.
Bilano V, Gilmour S, Moffiet T, et al. Global trends and projections for tobacco use, 1990–2025: an analysis of smoking indicators from the WHO Comprehensive Information Systems for Tobacco Control. Lancet. 2015;385(9972):966-976. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60264-1
 
3.
Gartner CE, Barendregt JJ, Hall WD. Predicting the future prevalence of cigarette smoking in Australia: how low can we go and by when? Tob Control. 2009;18(3):183-189. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.027615
 
4.
Hoffman SJ, Mammone J, Rogers Van Katwyk S, et al. Cigarette consumption estimates for 71 countries from 1970 to 2015: systematic collection of comparable data to facilitate quasi-experimental evaluations of national and global tobacco control interventions. BMJ. 2019;365:l2231. doi:10.1136/bmj.l2231
 
5.
Chung-Hall J, Craig L, Gravely S, Sansone N, Fong GT. Impact of the WHO FCTC over the first decade: a global evidence review prepared for the Impact Assessment Expert Group. Tob Control. 2019;28(Suppl 2):s119-s128. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054389
 
6.
World Health Organization. MPOWER: Advancing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). https://www.who.int/cancer/pre.... Accessed May 2, 2019.
 
7.
Gravely S, Giovino GA, Craig L, et al. Implementation of key demand-reduction measures of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and change in smoking prevalence in 126 countries: an association study. Lancet Public Health. 2017;2(4):e166-e174. doi:10.1016/s2468-2667(17)30045-2
 
8.
Munabi-Babigumira S, Fretheim A, Overland S. Interventions for Tobacco Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Randomised and Quasi-Randomized Studies. Oslo, Norway: Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH); 2012. PMID:28510404.
 
9.
Bala MM, Strzeszynski L, Topor‐Madry R. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017(11):CD004704. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd004704.pub4
 
10.
Barnes J, Dong CY, McRobbie H, Walker N, Mehta M, Stead LF. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(10):CD001008. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001008.pub2
 
11.
Cahill K, Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD003440. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003440.pub4
 
12.
Sinclair HK, Bond CM, Stead LF. Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003698. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003698.pub2
 
13.
Ussher MH, Taylor AH, Faulkner GEJ. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(8):(8):CD002295. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd002295.pub5
 
14.
White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD000009. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000009.pub3
 
15.
Whittaker R, McRobbie H, Bullen C, Rodgers A, Gu Y. Mobile phone‐based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4(4):CD006611. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006611.pub4
 
16.
Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta‐analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD009329. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009329.pub2
 
17.
Lancaster T, Stead LF. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;3(3):CD001292. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001292.pub2
 
18.
Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD008286. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008286.pub3
 
19.
Coppo A, Galanti MR, Giordano L, Buscemi D, Bremberg S, Faggiano F. School policies for preventing smoking among young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2014(10):CD009990. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009990.pub2
 
20.
Hefler M, Liberato SC, Thomas DP. Incentives for preventing smoking in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;6(6):CD008645. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008645.pub3
 
21.
Wolfenden L, Goldman S, Stacey FG, et al. Strategies to improve the implementation of workplace‐based policies or practices targeting tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;11(11):CD012439. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd012439.pub2
 
22.
Cahill K, Hartmann‐Boyce J, Perera R. Incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;7(7):CD004307. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub6
 
23.
Hamilton FL, Greaves F, Majeed A, Millett C. Effectiveness of providing financial incentives to healthcare professionals for smoking cessation activities: systematic review. Tob Control. 2013;22(1):3-8. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050048
 
24.
van den Brand FA, Nagelhout GE, Reda AA, et al. Healthcare financing systems for increasing the use of tobacco dependence treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;9(9):CD004305. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004305.pub5
 
25.
Snilstveit B, Vojtkova M, Bhavsar A, Stevenson J, Gaarder M. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016;79:120-129. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.05.015
 
26.
Munar W, Snilstveit B, Stevenson J, et al. Evidence gap map of performance measurement and management in primary care delivery systems in low- and middle-income countries - Study protocol. Gates Open Res. 2018;2:27. doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.12826.2
 
27.
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation. Present your EGM online. http://www.3ieimpact.org/evide.... Accessed April 30, 2019.
 
28.
Haddaway NR, Macura B, Whaley P, Pullin AS. ROSES RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Syntheses: pro forma, flow-diagram and descriptive summary of the plan and conduct of environmental systematic reviews and systematic maps. Environmental Evidence. 2018;7(1):7. doi:10.1186/s13750-018-0121-7
 
29.
Specialist Unit for Review Evidence, Cardiff University. Critical appraisal checklists. http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/speci.... Accessed June 16, 2020.
 
30.
Schlam TR, Baker TB. Interventions for Tobacco Smoking. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2013;9(1):675-702. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185602
 
eISSN:2459-3087