Exposure to the advertisement of toombak at the point-of-sale among adolescents in Khartoum State, Sudan: A crosssectional study
Hatim M. Almahdi 1, 2  
Raouf W. Ali 2, 3
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Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Science and Technology, Omdurman, Sudan
Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Hatim M. Almahdi   

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, PO Box 380, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Publication date: 2020-03-13
Submission date: 2019-08-27
Final revision date: 2019-12-08
Acceptance date: 2019-12-23
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2020;6(March):19
This study aimed to assess the association between toombak (smokeless tobacco) advertisement at point-of-sale (PoS) and its use among adolescents in Sudan.

A cross-sectional school-based and self-administered questionnaire study was conducted. Schools were randomly selected using a one-stage stratified sampling procedure, during 2013–2014, as part of a larger research project focusing on the use of toombak among secondary school students in Khartoum State, Sudan. The sample size was 1526 students. Data were collected on exposure to toombak advertisement, social acceptability, perceived accessibility to toombak, susceptibility, and toombak use.

A total of 41.8% of the adolescents were exposed to an advertisement at PoS, while 12.5% perceived direct access to toombak, 5.3% reported that they were susceptible to use toombak, and 10.9% were ever toombak users. Exposure to the advertisement of toombak at PoS was found to be associated with the older age group (44.3%) (p≤0.05). Males were more than females (45.2% vs 38.8%; p≤0.05). Those exposed to toombak advertisements at PoS reported more social acceptability towards toombak (48.9% vs 37.6%; p≤0.001) and direct accessibility to toombak (68.8% vs 47.2%; p≤0.05). Ever toombak users reported higher exposure to advertisements than non-users (54.5% vs 40.3%; p≤0.001).

Exposure to toombak advertisements at PoS was found to be high and associated with increased toombak use in Khartoum State, Sudan, in addition to increasing social acceptability to its use and perceived easy accessibility. The current law, which bans toombak advertisement and promotion at PoS, needs to be enforced.

The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
There was no source of funding for this research.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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