RESEARCH PAPER
Factors influencing cigarette smoking among police and costs of an officer smoking in the workplace at Nsambya Barracks, Uganda
 
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1
School of Public Health, St. Augustine International University, Kampala, Uganda
2
Uganda National Health Consumers Organization, Kampala, Uganda
3
Uganda Peoples Defence Force, Kampala, Uganda
4
Tobacco Control Office, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda
5
NDRI-USA, Leawood, United States
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Christopher K. Haddock   

NDRI-USA, Leawood, KS 66224, United States
Publication date: 2020-01-20
Submission date: 2019-08-16
Final revision date: 2019-11-15
Acceptance date: 2019-12-03
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2020;6(January):5
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Studies in several countries indicate that being a police officer is a risk factor for tobacco use. Currently, no such studies have been performed among police officers in Uganda, or in Africa generally. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence and costs of smoking among Ugandan police officers.

Methods:
A multistage survey model was employed to sample police officers (n=349) that included an observational cross-sectional survey and an annual costanalysis approach. The study setting was confined to Nsambya Police Barracks, in Kampala city.

Results:
Police officers smoke 4.8 times higher than the general public (25.5% vs 5.3%). Risk factors included lower age, higher education and working in guard and general duties units. The findings show that the annual cost of smoking due to productivity loss could be up to US$5.521 million and US$57.316 million for excess healthcare costs. These costs represent 45.1% of the UGX514.7 billion (in Ugandan Shillings, or about US$139.1 million) national police budget in the fiscal year 2018–19 and is equivalent to 0.24% of Uganda’s annual gross domestic product (GDP).

Conclusions:
Considering these data, prevalence of smoking among police officers are dramatically higher than in the general population. Consequently, smoking in police officers exerts a large burden on healthcare and productivity costs. This calls for comprehensive tobacco control measures designed to reduce smoking in the workplace so as to fit the specific needs of the Ugandan Police Force.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are most grateful to all individuals and respondents who participated in the study.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
BR and MMK are the primary authors of the article. EO, EK and HL assisted with project development and execution, and also with manuscript development. CKH provided consultation on the article and assisted with English editing and manuscript format.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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