Factors associated with hookah smoking among women: A systematic review
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Health Education and Health Promotion, Mother and Child Welfare Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Department of Work and Social Psychology, School of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Centre, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Teamur Aghamolaei   

Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Publish date: 2019-08-01
Submission date: 2019-03-26
Final revision date: 2019-06-10
Acceptance date: 2019-07-10
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(August):26
The present study aimed to determine factors associated with hookah smoking among women on a global scale based on a systematic review of related literature. Intervention Mapping was the guiding framework for this review.

Searches were performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Iranian databases, Elsevier, Embase, Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization (WHO) website, using keywords related to hookah and associated terms. Studies in English or Persian, published between 1990 and 2018, were included in this review if they were available in full text and had a target population of women. Determinants of hookah smoking at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional/organizational, community, and political levels, were extracted.

Positive attitude, social-psychological needs, low perceived risk, socialcultural acceptance of hookah, easy access and lack of laws were among the reasons given for consuming hookah. Because hookah smoking is a multifactorial issue, the qualitative method alone was not sufficient to identify the determinants of hookah smoking among women. The opinions of experts in the field of smoking control had been largely neglected in the obtained studies, and most quantitative studies lacked a theoretical framework.

To reduce the rate of hookah consumption, actions to be taken include changing women’s positive attitude toward hookah, learning to resist friends’ pressure to smoke, highlighting the unpleasantness of hookah smoking by segregating places with transparent walls within public places, showing in the virtual world that hookah smoking is socially unacceptable, limiting access to hookah tobacco products, and effectively implementing rules that restrict hookah smoking in public places.

The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
There was no source of funding for this research.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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