RESEARCH PAPER
Informing population-specific smoking policy development for college campuses: An observational study
 
More details
Hide details
1
Fanshawe College, London, Canda
2
The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Publish date: 2018-07-03
Submission date: 2018-02-26
Final revision date: 2018-05-18
Acceptance date: 2018-06-21
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2018;4(July):26
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
In Canada, young adults have the highest smoking rates among all other population groups and specifically college students are at a higher risk. To implement effective policies that can prevent smoking and increase cessation, a populationspecific approach is recommended.

Methods:
Smoking and non-smoking young adults enrolled in a college program were recruited. Participants who did not smoke were asked to complete questionnaires about their demographics, college experience and the college environment. Additionally, they completed The Perceived Stress Scale and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale. Students who were current smokers completed the same questionnaires with the addition of one questionnaire about their smoking behaviors. Percentages, means and standard deviations were used to describe the variables of interest and a chi-squared analysis was performed, when possible, to test the difference in response frequency between smoking and nonsmoking participants.

Results:
Differences were observed between smoking (n=65) and non-smoking students (n=214). Specifically, smokers were more likely to have a family member that smoked and to participate in binge drinking. Both groups indicated that they are unaware of campus smoking regulations; however smokers were more opposed to implementing smoke-free policies.

Conclusions:
College students are unaware of campus smoking regulations. The descriptive information and differences observed between smoking and non-smoking students in this study should be taken into consideration when developing future smoking regulations/policies on college campuses.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Matthew J. Fagan   
The University of Western Ontario, 1151, N6A 3K7 London, Canada
 
REFERENCES (31):
1. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Vol 5.; 2013. doi:10.1002/aehe.3640230702.
2. Government of Canada. Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. Smoking in Canada: an overview. https://www.canada.ca/en/healt.... Published 2012.
3. Backinger CL, Fagan P, Matthews E, Grana R. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions. Tob Control. 2003;12 Suppl 4:IV46-V53. doi:10.1136/tc.12.suppl.
4. Hammond D. Smoking behaviour among young adults: Beyond youth prevention. Tob Control. 2005;14(3):181-185. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.009621.
5. Green MP, McCausland KL, Xiao H, Duke JC, Vallone DM, Healton CG. A closer look at smoking among young adults: Where tobacco control should focus its attention. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(8):1427-1433. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.103945.
6. Boothby D, Drewes T. Education in Canada : Postsecondary Returns to University, Trades. Can Public Policy. 2006;32(1):1-21. doi:10.2307/3552240
7. Sanem JR, Berg CJ, An LC, Kirch MA, Lust KA. Differences in Tobacco Use Among Two-Year and Four-Year College Students in Minnesota. Journal of American College Health. 2008;58(2). doi:10.1080/07448480903221376
8. Loukas A, Murphy JL, Gottlieb NH. Cigarette smoking and cessation among trade or technical school students in Texas. J Am Coll Heal. 2008;56(4):401-407. doi:10.3200/JACH.56.44.401-408.
9. Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader MJ. Working Class Matters: Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(2):269-278. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.2.269.
10. Sorensen G, Barbeau E, Hunt MK, Emmons K. Reducing Social Disparities in Tobacco Use: A Social-Contextual Model for Reducing Tobacco Use among Blue-Collar Workers. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(2):230-239. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.2.230.
11. Howard J. Smoking is an occupational hazard. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46(2):161-169. doi:10.1002/ajim.10364.
12. Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU). Indicators of Smoke-Free Ontario Progress.; 2010.
13. Chapman S, Wai Leng Wong, Smith W. Self-exempting beliefs about smoking and health: Differences between smokers and ex-smokers. Am J Public Health. 1993;83(2):215-219. doi:10.2105/AJPH.83.2.215.
14. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24(4):385-396. doi:10.2307/2136404
15. Radloff LS. A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1(3):385-401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306.
16. Fagerström K. Determinants of tobacco use and renaming the FTND to the Fagerström test for cigarette dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(1):75-78. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr137.
17. Freedman KS, Nelson NM, Feldman LL. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: a systematic review. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9(5):E05. doi:10.5888/pcd9.110037.
18. Park CL, Levenson MR. Drinking to cope among college students: prevalence, problems and coping processes. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(4):486-497. doi:10.15288/jsa.2002.63.486
19. Matarazoo G, Saslow J. Psychological and related characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers. Psychol Bull. 1960;57(6):493-513. doi:10.1037/h0040828.
20. Hanson MD, Chen E. Socioeconomic status and health behaviors in adolescence: A review of the literature. J Behav Med. 2007;30(3):263-285. doi:10.1007/s10865-007-9098-3.
21. Ma J, Betts NM, Hampl JS. Clustering of lifestyle behaviors: The relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary intake. Am J Heal Promot. 2000;15(2):107-117. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-15.2.107.
22. Adams S. Psychopharmacology of Tobacco and Alcohol Comorbidity: a Review of Current Evidence. Curr Addict Reports. 2017;4(1):25-34. doi:10.1007/s40429-017-0129-z.
23. Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980-2012. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2014;311(2):183-192. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284692.
24. Reid J, Hammond D, Rynard V, Burkhalter R. Tobacco Use in Canada : Patterns and Trends. Can Cancer Soc. 2015:1-100. http://www.tobaccoreport.ca/20.... Accessed February 2018.
25. Schwarzer R, Luszczynska A. How to overcome health-compromising behaviors: The health action process approach. Eur Psychol. 2008;13(2):141-151. doi:10.1027/1016-9040.13.2.141.
26. Deci EL, Ryan RM. Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Can Psychol. 2008;49(3):182-185. doi:10.1037/a0012801.
27. Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Pierce JP, Al E. Methods used to quit smoking in the united states: Do cessation programs help? JAMA. 1990;263(20):2760-2765. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440200064024.
28. Zhu SH, Melcer T, Sun J, Rosbrook B, Pierce JP. Smoking cessation with and without assistance: A population-based analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18(4):305-311. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00124-0.
29. Shiffman S, Brockwell SE, Pillitteri JL, Gitchell JG. Use of Smoking-Cessation Treatments in the United States. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(2):102-111. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.033.
30. Lancaster T, Stead L, Silagy C, Sowden A. Effectiveness of interventions to help people stop smoking: Findings from the Cochrane Library. Bmj. 2000;321(7257):355-358. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7257.355.
31. Lemstra M, Neudorf C, Opondo J. Implications of a public smoking ban. Can J Public Heal Can Sante’e Publique. 2008;99(1):62-65.
eISSN:2459-3087