Perception of the risk of tobacco use in pregnancy and factors associated with tobacco use in rural areas of Myanmar
Kyaw L. Show 1  
Aung P. Phyo 1
Saw Saw 1
Ko K. Zaw 2
Thuzar C. Tin 3
Nyein A. Tun 3
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Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Sports, Yangon, Myanmar
University of Public Health, Yangon, Myanmar
Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health and Sports, Naypyitaw, Myanmar
Kyaw L. Show   

Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Sports, Yangon, Myanmar
Publish date: 2019-10-24
Submission date: 2018-11-27
Final revision date: 2019-09-30
Acceptance date: 2019-10-01
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(October):36
Tobacco use is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for pregnancy complications and undesirable fetal outcomes. This study examined the reported prevalence of tobacco use among married men and women residing in rural areas, and their knowledge on the risks of tobacco use during pregnancy and the factors associated with tobacco use.

A cross-sectional study was conducted within 32 villages in the delta region of Myanmar, randomly selected through multistage sampling procedure by using a pre-tested structured questionnaire during 2016. In all, 617 people participated in the household survey.

About 80% of current smokers (109/128) smoked at home, of whom 16% reported the presence of a pregnant woman in their smoking area. Less than 25% of the respondents were aware of the negative impacts of tobacco use on pregnancy outcomes. Men had significantly lower perceived risk towards smoking on some pregnancy outcomes. Multivariate analysis confirmed the significant influence of male gender (adjusted OR, AOR=12.62; 95% CI: 6.30–25.29) and the age of women <35 years (AOR=3.51; 95% CI: 1.97–6.26) on current tobacco use, when controlling for other variables.

Men in the study villages and those with a low level of education had poor knowledge on the risks of tobacco on pregnancy outcomes. However, good knowledge and perceived risk of undesirable impacts on pregnancy did not have any influence on tobacco use.

We thank the World Health Organization (WHO) for funding support to conduct this study. We would like to express our sincerest gratitude and respect to our colleagues and interviewers for their great efforts in this study. We also express our deep appreciation to Thae Maung Maung and Wai Wai Han for their valuable comments and efforts in writing this paper. The assistance of the Public Health Director, Township Medical Officers, Staff from the study areas and participants is greatly appreciated.
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
This work was supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) Reference SEMMR 1611892 Task 5.18 Award 63919.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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