RESEARCH PAPER
The economic cost of tobacco smoking and secondhand smoke in Greece: Musculoskeletal disorders the leading contributor to smoking-related morbidity
 
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University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Konstantina Koronaiou   

University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece
Publish date: 2019-11-15
Submission date: 2019-06-03
Final revision date: 2019-10-03
Acceptance date: 2019-10-15
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(November):39
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The high proportion of the population in Greece that is active and passive smoking makes smoking the leading risk factor for death and disability. Tobacco use creates a high cost to society and yet relevant research for Greece is limited.

Methods:
The cost-of-illness approach is used to estimate the economic cost of smoking and, for the first time, of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in Greece. The analysis covers more health conditions, causally related to smoking, than those included in such studies.

Results:
Based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2017, total economic cost of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure is estimated to be €7.2 billion in 2017, which is equivalent to almost 4% of GDP in Greece. SHS exposure accounts for 8.9% of total cost. Direct cost of smoking is slightly less than indirect cost. Indirect cost is relatively higher for males. Musculoskeletal disorders and diabetes are found to comprise the greatest fraction of morbidity cost of smoking and SHS exposure, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases are found to be the main cause of mortality costs for both smoking and SHS exposure.

Conclusions:
Total economic cost of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure in Greece is estimated to be more than double the revenue from tobacco taxes. Smoking imposes a heavy economic burden, underlining the need for efficient interventions, including effective implementation and enforcement of existing anti-tobacco policies.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
Both authors contributed to the design of the work, analysis and interpretation of results, and the writing of the paper.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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