Tobacco use among male inmates and their attitudes toward its prevention in Khartoum State: A cross-sectional study
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Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Medical Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
Elhadi M. Awooda   

Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Medical Science and Technology, 12810 Khartoum, Sudan
Publish date: 2019-07-19
Submission date: 2019-03-19
Final revision date: 2019-05-01
Acceptance date: 2019-06-02
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(July):25
Tobacco use remains the most preventable cause of death and disability, with prisoners being a neglected population of tobacco users. The aim was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and attitudes toward its prevention among adult male prisoners.

We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 349 adult male inmates from three prisons in Khartoum State. The interview questionnaire included questions related to tobacco use status, type of tobacco used, previous attempts to quit, smoking inside a room, frequency of tobacco use before and after incarceration, and attitude toward its prevention. Chi-squared and paired t-test were used to compare between different variables, with the level of significance set at p≤0.05.

The majority (69.1%) were in the age group 30–50 years. All of the studied prisoners were tobacco users of which: 43.8% used oral snuff (toombak); 22.1% were cigarette smokers; 30.9% used both cigarette and toombak; 0.6% used cigarette and waterpipe; and 3.2% used cigarette, toombak and waterpipe. Toombak users (alone or with other types of tobacco) were 272 (78%) with the majority (62.4%) dipping 2–5 times per day. There were 96 (57%) cigarette smokers (alone or with other types), and waterpipe users were 12 (3.8%). The majority (74.6%) of cigarette users shared their cell with other toombak users. For the majority (79.6%), the number of cigarettes and snuff dipping per day was directly proportional to the period of incarceration. Almost all (99.1%) prisoners know the harmful effects of tobacco use, and 64.5% had previously attempted to quit. Also, 98% of tobacco users reported a desire to quit and expressed willingness to participate in a tobacco-cessation program.

Different patterns and methods of tobacco use were explored, and all the studied prisoners were users. Tobacco use increased after incarceration. The willingness to participate in tobacco-cessation counselling should be met with the implementation of a planned and well-designed prevention program.

The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
There was no source of funding for this research.
E.M.A was involved in the writing and revising of the manuscript, D.E.S in data collection, analysis and drafting the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final draft.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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