Visibility and hotspots of outdoor tobacco advertisement around educational facilities without an advertising ban: Geospatial analysis in Surabaya City, Indonesia
Vilda Amir 3
Dian Kusuma 4  
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Department of Health Promotion and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Department of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Centre for Health Economics and Policy Innovations, Imperial College Business School, London, United Kingdom
Dian Kusuma   

Centre for Health Economics and Policy Innovations, Imperial College Business School, London, United Kingdom
Publish date: 2019-10-04
Submission date: 2019-07-15
Final revision date: 2019-09-12
Acceptance date: 2019-09-19
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(October):32
Despite having over 60 million smokers in 2018, Indonesia still lacks tobacco control measures, including an outdoor tobacco advertising ban. This study aimed to provide evidence on the visibility and hotspots of advertisements around educational facilities in a city without a ban.

We collected data on the locations of outdoor tobacco advertisements and schools and universities in Surabaya city. We conducted buffer and hotspots analyses using ArcMap. Using Getis-Ord Gi* statistics, hotspot analysis identifies significant clusters with a high number of advertisements.

We found 307 large and medium-sized outdoor tobacco advertisements and 1287 educational facilities (1199 schools, 88 universities). Almost 80% of those advertisements (237 units) were just 300 m away (10-minute walk) from primary schools and high schools in the city. More than half of all schools (652) and two-thirds of all universities (59) were inside hotspots where there were statistically significant clusters with a high number of advertisements. These hotspots were more densely populated and more-deprived areas.

There was high visibility of large and medium-sized outdoor tobacco advertisements around educational facilities in the city without the ban.

The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
This research was funded by the Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.
HM and DK conceptualized the study. HM and IR conducted data collection. IR and DK analyzed the data. DK drafted and HM, IR, and VA provided inputs to the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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