RESEARCH PAPER
A pilot study assessing the addition of a Quit and Win program to pharmacist-led intensive smoking cessation therapy in a predominantly underserved, minority population
 
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1
College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States
2
Department of Pharmacy, University Health System, San Antonio, Texas, United States
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Kirk E. Evoy   

Department of Pharmacy, University Health System, San Antonio, TX 78229, United States
Publish date: 2019-11-26
Submission date: 2019-08-27
Final revision date: 2019-10-07
Acceptance date: 2019-10-24
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(November):44
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Quit and Win programs (Q&W) have been shown to improve smoking cessation rates by offering potential rewards to encourage smoking cessation. However, few studies have combined Q&W with intensive smoking cessation programs including behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy, or studied Q&W in underserved, minority populations. This study was conducted to assess the impact on smoking cessation rates of adding a Q&W to intensive smoking cessation therapy in a largely underserved, minority population.

Methods:
This was a single-center, prospective, open-label controlled study. Current smokers received pharmacist-led behavioral counseling and smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Intervention group patients who successfully quit (verified by self-report and exhaled carbon monoxide) at 1 month and 3 months post-quit date were entered into a draw for $1000. The control group received the same smoking cessation services, but without a monetary incentive.

Results:
Enrollment was 111 patients (N=85 in the intervention group), made up of predominantly underserved (82% had annual household income <000), minority (69.1%), and female (58%) patients. Groups were similar except the intervention group had lower educational and income levels, while the control group was more likely to smoke more than 1 pack per day. Quit rates at 3 months were 27% and 19% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p=0.22). Female gender (OR=2.84; p=0.04) and Fagerström score (OR=0.71; p<0.01) were significant predictors of quitting.

Conclusions:
The addition of Q&W to intensive smoking cessation services increased clinic referrals and numerically improved cessation rates, although this difference was not statistically significant, possibly due to high attrition of the study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank Karen Hudmon of the Purdue University College of Pharmacy for assistance with the final editing of the manuscript.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have each completed and submitted an ICMJE form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. The authors declare that they have no competing interests, financial or otherwise, related to the current work. S.0. Nduaguba reports personal fees from The University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, during the conduct of the study.
FUNDING
This work was supported by an academic research grant provided by The Arlyn Kloesel Endowment Grant Program for Innovative Pharmacy Practice and Business Models. No proposal number was provided for this grant. The funding source played no role in the study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation of data, or manuscript development.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
KEE and KHF were primarily responsible for study design. KEE and AT carried out the study, with KEE leading all clinical services. SON and KHF were primarily responsible for statistical analysis. KEE and KHF were responsible for interpreting the study findings. KEE, LT and SON developed the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revisions.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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