RESEARCH PAPER
Association of tobacco control policies with cigarette smoking among school youth aged 13–15 years in the Philippines, 2000–2015
 
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1
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
2
Center for Health Policy Science and Tobacco Control Research, RTI International, Berkeley, United States
3
Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, United States
4
Tobacco Advocacy Group, Philippine Pediatric Society, Quezon, Philippines
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
René A. Arrazola   

Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States
Publication date: 2020-06-11
Submission date: 2020-03-20
Final revision date: 2020-05-08
Acceptance date: 2020-05-14
 
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2020;6(June):35
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
In 2003, the Philippines implemented legislation that prohibited the sale of tobacco products to youth, placed text warning labels on tobacco products, and prohibited tobacco smoking in public places. This study assessed if this legislation was associated with reduced cigarette smoking among youth.

Methods:
Data came from the 2000–2015 Philippines Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of students aged 13– 15 years. GYTS data were used to determine associations between tobacco control legislation and current, past 30-day, current cigarette smoking (CCS). Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, current other tobacco product use (COTPU), and price per cigarette stick (PPCS).

Results:
In the unadjusted model, the 2003 legislation was not associated with CCS (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.54–1.10). After adjusting for covariates, it was negatively associated (AOR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.53–0.80). Being 15 years old (OR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.08–1.58), male (OR=2.54; 95% CI: 2.17–2.98), and COTPU (OR=4.12; 95% CI: 3.47–4.91) were positively associated with CCS in unadjusted models. In adjusted models, being 14 years old (AOR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.08–1.53), 15 years old (AOR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.31–1.84), male (AOR=2.49; 95% CI: 2.13–2.91), and COTPU (AOR=3.96; 95% CI: 3.32–4.73), were associated with CCS. PPCS was not associated with CCS in either the unadjusted (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.82–2.11) or adjusted (AOR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.79–2.18) models.

Conclusions:
After adjusting for covariates, the 2003 tobacco control legislation was associated with lower current cigarette smoking, but price per cigarette stick was not.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge Florante Trinidad, from the Tobacco Free Initiative and Mental Health, World Health Organization, Office of the Representative in the Philippines, Manila, Philippines. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
Andrew B. Seidenberg is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number F31DA045424. All other authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
All authors have substantially contributed to the conception of the work, interpretation of data for the work and drafting and critical revisions of the work for important intellectual content; they have approved the final version for publication and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. RAA and LMD were responsible for the statistical analysis. RAA analyzed the data and has full responsibility for the work and decision to publish.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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