Male students’ experiences on predictors of waterpipe smoking reduction: A qualitative study in Iran
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Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Nursing Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Behavioral & Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, United States
Hamid Abasi   

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Publish date: 2019-09-30
Submission date: 2019-06-12
Final revision date: 2019-08-04
Acceptance date: 2019-09-10
Tob. Prev. Cessation 2019;5(September):30
In recent years, waterpipe smoking (WPS) has increased among adolescents in Iran. This study aimed to explain the experiences of high school students in Iran on predictors of WPS reduction based on a multi-theory model (MTM) of health behaviour change.

This study was a qualitative study of directed content analysis that was conducted in high school male students in Hamadan, Iran, in 2017. In this study, 34 students who had smoked waterpipe (WP) in the last month were recruited through snowball sampling that was continued until data saturation. The data were collected through semi-structured, individual interviews and were then analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis.

The data analysis resulted in the extraction of 104 final codes around the six themes of predetermined MTM constructs consisting of participatory dialogue, behavioural confidence, changes in the physical environment, emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in the social environment. The findings of this study showed that this model has the potential to explain the behaviour of WPS reduction. The main predictors of reduction in WPS are behavioural confidence, social environment change, and participatory dialogue.

Findings of the research showed that the belief in an individual’s ability, support from friends and the benefits of WPS reduction are the most important factors in reducing WPS among students. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive interventions be developed to improve the individual and social factors that are effective in WPS reduction.

We thank Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Education District 1, 2, in Hamadan.
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
This work was supported by Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, (grant: 960115134).
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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